Peru p. 7



PERU1.GIF
Morgan Dillon
Elisa Isakson
Andie Cott

  1. General Information
  2. Foods
  3. Entertainment
  4. Bibliographies


General Information:


Peru is a country located down in South America. Many don’t actually know what the real country name is. The country’s name is actually “Republic of Peru.” Though this is the actual name, many shorten it and just call it Peru. The capital of Peru is Lima. The total area of Peru is 798,122 square miles. Many other countries surround Peru down in South America. It borders Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Ecuador. Peru has a very diverse land area.peru.GIF(Country Reports)

It has both coastal plain as well as the Andes Mountains located right in the middle. Peru also has a jungle down in the southern area. Up in the mountains of Peru, there even lies a very historical place. This place is called Machu Picchu. Though Peru is a very beautiful place, it is a place that can have many natural disasters. They can experience earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis, and landslides. The climate in Peru varies from time to time during the year. From about December to April, it is Peru’s summer. The hottest month during the summer is February. Winter is around May to November. The temperatures in both the summer and winter are not too harsh. The summers do not go above 80 degrees and in the winter the weather doesn’t go below 50 degrees.(Country Reports)

The Amazon River is the largest river in Peru and even goes into Brazil. Peru is highly populated, with a population of about 28,674,757 people. In Latin America, Peru is ranked fifth for the most populated country. Peru has a wide variety of nationality down in the area. The different ethnicities vary from area to area, however Peru over all has a wide variety.( Country Reports)
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Pie Chart of the nationalites down in Peru.

The official language in the country, Peru, is Spanish. Though this is the official language, there are other languages that are also spoken down in Peru. (Country Reports) The Independence Day for Peru is July 28, 1821.

The main religion in Peru is Roman Catholic. Though this is the main religion there is to be said that there are Muslim and Jewish religions down by Lima. Though there are also these religions, they are very small groups and the majority is Catholic. The constitution in Peru, like ours, grants everyone the freedom to practice their own religion.( Country Reports)

The government in Peru has changed over a series of years. Peru had been involved in a dictatorship for 20 years. In the year 1945, they had finally got out and moved into having a President. Peru’s first president was José Luis Bustamente. This was the first inauguration of the time ending the long era of dictatorship. José was president for a total of 3 years and then had ended his presidency. Small groups of rebels fought out against the government. Due to these groups, it created deaths. 69,000 people had died during this time of war. These deaths were caused by both the rebels and military of the time. As time went on and presidents changed, Peru’s democracy was eventually saved. (Infoplease) Like any other flag, the flag of Peru shows history and individuality. There are three vertical segments, 2 red, and 1 white. In the center of the white bar, there is a crest that explains something of importance. (Country Reports)

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The flag of Peru.


The economy in Peru is similar in a few ways to America. They have social classes consisting of High, Middle, and Lower. Each class is classified by the items that you have. For example if you have expensive property and high education you will most likely be in the upper class. (Country Reports) For the middle class, you would simply need to have a house, a car, and some sort of education. Peru has many major exports and imports. Being that Peru lies partly on the ocean, it is easy for exports and imports to both come and go. Some major exports that Peru has are: Fish, gold, copper, crude petroleum, coffee, sugar, and many other items. (Country Reports) These all come from areas down in Peru and then are later shipped to different areas. Some partners that Peru sends exports to are: US, UK, Switzerland, and a variety of other know areas. Peru exports many items out of the country, yet they also receive a variety of imports. Some major imports for Peru are: machinery, iron, steel, and chemicals. There are a few other imports that Peru also receives. The countries that are involved in the imports with Peru are: US, Brazil, Spain, Columbia, and Chile. (Country Reports)

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Peruvian Food and Cuisine Customs

HISTORY

Peruvian food dates back to a multicultural mix of the Incas, waves of Spanish conquerors, African Slaves, Chinese laborers and Italian and Japanese immigrants who made Peru their home. Peruvian cuisine is considered one of the best and most diverse in South America. It is known for not only its exquisite and unique taste, but also for its extreme variety in foods influenced by different times and cultures (CulturalExpeditions). The main staple foods of Peru include potatoes, beans, rice, fish, corn, and a large variety of tropical fruits (Country Reports).

FRUITS

Some of Peru’s unique fruits include soursop, pepino, grenadilla, and the lúcuma. The soursop is very similar to the custard apple. It has a soft white flesh and a sharp, tart taste. The pepino, which can now be found in some grocery stores in the United States, is a cantaloupe-like fruit with yellow and purple streaks. The consistency and taste is similar to a cucumber. In most other countries, a pepino is a cucumber. But in Peru, a pepinillo is a cucumber. The grenadilla is a type of passion fruit with grey skin and small, tart seeds on the inside. It is usually cut in half like a grapefruit, and the seeds are scooped from the grey-skinned bowl. The lúcuma, one of Peru’s most interesting fruits, is not found anywhere else on the continent. It is a medium-sized fruit with thick orange flesh, and it tastes almost exactly like maple syrup (A Taste of The World).

ORIENTAL INFLUENCE

One thing that is surprising to most tourists that visit Peru is the large amount of oriental restaurants. Between 1849 and 1874, over 100,000 Chinese immigrants migrated to Peru and established “fondas” (places where the Chinese would eat). More and more restaurants, later called “chifas,” began to open up in residential areas throughout Peru. Nowadays, every grocery store in Peru carries a section containing only Chinese ingredients. Peru is the country with the most Chinese restaurants - over 2,000 - in Latin America (Cultural Expeditions).

COMMON DISHES
A few of Peru’s commonly served dishes include Ceviche, Cau-Cau criollo, Anticuchos, and Lomo Saltado.ceviche.jpg

Ceviche
Ceviche is a form of citrus-marinated seafood appetizer. Both finfish and shellfish are used; finfish is typically served raw while shellfish is cooked. In Peru, it is composed of chunks of raw fish, with lime or lemon juice though sometimes bitter orange, sliced onion, minced Peruvian ají limo, or the popular The mixture is marinated and served at room temperature.


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Cau-Cau Criollo
There are many different versions of cau-cau. In general, cau cau is a cooking style (seafood cau cau, chicken cau cau, etc.) Cau cau criollo refers to the beef tripe cau cau. These recipes have an African, Italian and Chinese influence. Cau cau is usually served in large amounts for multiple people. (Peru-Recipes)
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Anticuchos

Anticuchos are popular, inexpensive dishes in South American countries consisting of small pieces of grilled skewered meat. They are often found on streetcarts and street food stalls (anticucherias). While anticuchos can be made of any type of meat, the most popular are made of beef heart. The meat is marinated in vinegar and spices and then served with a boiled potato on the end of the skewer.


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Lomo Saltado

Lomo saltado is an Asian-influenced Peruvian entree consisting of strips of sirloin marinated in vinegar, soy sauce and other spices, then stir fried with tomatoes, red onions, and parsley. It is served traditionally over white rice with homemade french fries.(Wikipedia)




COMMON DESSERTS
A few of Peru’s commonly served desserts include Alfajores, Turrones, and Mazamorra Morada.ttt-blog-7-alfajores.jpg


Alfajores
Alfajores, a sweet biscuit, is a common dessert made in several different varieties. The basic recipe uses a base mix of flour, lemon rind, margarine, and powdered sugar which is then oven-baked. It consists of two or more layers of this baked pastry, and is usually filled with either manjar blanco or molasses.



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Turrones
Turrones, meaning “nougat” are also made in several varieties. One common variety, found in Lima, is Turrón de Doña Pepa, an anise and honey nougat. Turrones are most commonly made from almonds, and are found in Spanish-speaking countries all over the world.


mazamorra-morada.jpg


Mazamorra Morada
Mazamorra Morada, meaning “purple mush” is a jelly-like dessert which takes on the color of its main ingredient—purple corn. It’s is a very popular dessert in most parts of Peru. A variety of purple corn (maíz morado) grows in Peru that colors and adds a unique flavor to the water in which it is boiled. When the water is cooled, fruit, lemon, and sugars are added, and the mixture is served as a beverage, its name is "chicha morada"(Wikipedia).

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Entertainment

Like many countries Peru is filled with much entertainment, from their culture to their sports, it’s a fun and different place to visit. Peru’s entertainment consists of:
Sports
Celebration and festivals
Arts

Sports:

In Peru, sports are very popular and are loved by the people. They paint there faces red and white of the flag, to show their support of the teams. The most popular sports in Peru are soccer, volleyball, bullfighting, and racing.


Soccer: The Peruvians have a strong passion for soccer and it’s important internationally and nationally. Historically, Peruvian soccer is important to them as well and they have had some major accomplishments. In 1970, 1978, and 1982 the Peruvian soccer team qualified for the mexcican cup, it was broadcasted nationally and is still remembered by Peruvians today. Not only do they play soccer professionally, but kids all around the country will go out and have fun playing it with their friends and family on the streets. But when the national team is playing, “the country shuts down.”(Peru Soccer)

external image peru.jpg

Volleyball:

As well as soccer, women’s volley ball is a much enjoyed sport. Peru has had a solid women’s team for nearly two decades, ending up in the top 19 teams in the world. In Lima’s shantytowns and working class neighborhoods the sport is especially popular. When they achieve their place on the national team they are worked seven hours a day with extremely hard practices. Volleyball takes up these women’s lives. Since Peru is such a small country, it’s amazing that they can spike a ball against the major powers. ("Peru Volleyball")

external image peru_volleyball_2.jpg


Bullfighting: In America bullfighting is not a particularly prominent sport, and is not even allowed in other countries. But in Peru, it’s well known. The most famous matadors and bull ranches in the world compete to achieve glory and fame in the Acho Plaza de Toros in Peru. People all over the world come to see these amazing bull fights. Two awards are given to the matadors, one for the best presented and most impressive bull, and one for the most skilled matador. It is a very dangerous sport where many men have been killed or seriously injured, but it is still very entertaining thing for the people to come together and watch.(Bag of olives)
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Celebrations and festivals:

Peru is a country that has many celebrations and festivals celebrated because of their history and past traditions. Yearly, there are about 3000 festivals preformed, most of them because of the saint, Santo patron. The most popular festivals include:

Inti Raymi : It started because of the Incas and is a celebration of the Sun God. Its one of the biggest celebrations. Throughout the day they travel to different sites, and finally at the temple of the sun God they sacrifice two llamas. (Peru-festivals and holidays)

Corpus Christi: This day is a celebration of Corpus Christi, and is a very traditional ceremony. The saints come out and are celebrated and after a couple weeks they return back to their places where they will be for the rest of the year. (Peru- festivals and holidays)

Fiesta de la virgin de Candelaria: This is one of the most important celebrations in South of Peru. On February 2nd the virgin is led through the colorful and decorated streets while 200 dancers and musicians are performing. The festival is linked to the pre-Hispanic agricultural cycles of sowing and harvesting, as well as mining activities in the region. (peru-festivals and holidays)

Fiesta de la virgin de Carmen: Thousands of devotees hold festivals in honor of the virgin de Carmen. The gathering is held in the main square where many musicians play while choirs sing. This fiesta portrays significant events in Peruvian history. The virgin is supposed to bless those present and scare off demons. (peru-festivals and holidays)

Fiesta de Todos los Santos: Also known as the day of the dead. It’s a day that is dedicated to the memory of the dead. They go to their loved ones cemetery and prepare meals and little treats of remembrance to them. It’s a happy celebration.(Peru-festivals and holidays)

Senor de los Temblores: In 1650 their was a large earthquake, ever since then they celebrate this day to keep away the earthquakes. This day is closely related to our Easter celebration. (peru-festivals and holidays)

Art:

Peruvian art is one of the most rich and varied on earth. Peru’s art and artists have been able to survive even through years of political violence and economical obstacles. In Peru some of the main artwok includes Peruvian mirrors which are wooden mirrors covered in bronze leaf and glass with floral painting. Peru also has Chulucanas Ceramics, which are ceramic figurines that portray people and typical scenes. Inca ceramics and decorative plates, which are used for ceremonies and decorations, typically they are made in unusual shapes and are hand made. Ayacuacho ceramics are figurines, ornaments, musicians playing instruments, ect. They are all painted in earth tones. Carved Stone are stones from the andes that are good luck charms in the shape of eggs, spheres, and pyramids. Tapestries and rugs from ayacucho are made of sheep wool and alpaca, they came from the incas many centuries before. Peruvian paintings are usually oil paintings depicting scenes in Peru. Most of their artwork now is done in the ways that the Incans did theirs. Although there are many more styles of art, these are their main forms. (Incalink)


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Bibliographies:


General Info:
-"Independence Day of Peru ." 123Independenceday.com. 3 May 2009 <http://www.123independenceday.com/peru/>.
-"Lima Introduction." 2006 . interKnowledge Corp.. 3 May 2009 <http://www.geographia.com/peru/lima/>.
-"Discover Peru's Amazon." Aqua Expeditions. 3 May 2009 <http://www.aquaexpeditions.com/amazon-river/>.
-"Peru Introduction." 2007. interKnowledge Corp. 3 May 2009 <http://www.geographia.com/peru/>.
-"Machu Picchu, PEru." Places of Peace and Power. 2009. Martin Gray. 3 May 2009 <http://www.sacredsites.com/americas/peru/machu_picchu.html>.
-"Peru." infoplease. 2007. Pearson Education, Inc. 3 May 2009 <http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107883.html>.
-"Greatest River...Amazon." Extreame Earth. 2008. Extreme Science. 3 May 2009 <http://www.extremescience.com/AmazonRiver.htm>.
-
CountryReports.org. 2009 Edition. Published by CountryReports.org.
<current date>. <http://www.countryreports.org>.


Entertainment:
-"Peru soccer". Maps of World. 5/1/09 <http://www.mapsofworld.com/peru/sports/soccer.html>.
-"Peru Volleyball". News post. 5/1/09 <http://www.gci275.com/news/post07.shtml >.
-"Bag of Olives". The Cutest blog. 5/1/09 <http://fuzzknitter.blogspot.com/2008/11/bull-fighting.html>.
-"Peru-festivals and holidays". Amauta spanish school. 5/1/09 <http://www.amautaspanish.com/amautaspanish/english/peru/fiestas.asp>.
"Incalink". Culture made art. 5/1/09 <http://www.incalink.com/>.

-"Primera division de mexico". Wikipedia. 5/1/09 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primera_Divisi%C3%B3n_de_M%C3%A9xico.
-"Fruit of the Nile". Sun God. 5/1/09 <http://www.fruitofthenile.com/ra.htm>.


Food:
Cultural Expeditions. 3 May 2009. <http://culturalexpeditions.net/default.aspx>
CountryReports.org. 2009 Edition. Published by CountryReports.org. 3 May 2009. <http://www.countryreports.org>.
A Taste of the World. 2008. 3 May 2009. <
http://atasteoftheworld.wordpress.com/2008/06/28/fruit-in-peru/>
Peru-Recipes. “Cau Cau Criollo” 3 May 2009.<
http://peru-recipes.com/2008/04/cau-cau-criollo-creole-cau-cau>
Civilizations in America. “Incas”. 3 May 2009. <
http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/CIVAMRCA/INCAS.HTM>
Wikipedia. “Lomo Saltado.” 2007. Wikipedia Foundation, Inc. 3 May 2009. <
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lomo_saltado>


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