Lauren K.
Meaghan R.
Claire Harman!
Emily Grammes



Peru

external image Peru_flag.gif

Emily Grammes- General Info
Meaghan Rons-Entertainment

Claire Harman-Cuisine
Lauren Klein- History

General Info

Population
In July 2008 there were approximately 29,180,900 people. It is placed 38th in population among 193 nations in the world (León). In Lima alone there are 8.5 million people. Lima is the busiest and largest city. The next largest cities are Callao and Arequipa with 500,000 people. The population has more than tripled over last 50 years (León). There are 43 people per square mile. The population is multi ethnic: Indian 45-47 percent, mestizos 32-37 percent, unmixed Europeans 12-15 percent, blacks and mulattos 2 percent, and Asian (León). The annual growth rate is 1.61%. 15% of Peruvians are from European decent There are more indigenous people in Peru then any other country in South America (León).


Miraflores Square in Lima, Peru
Miraflores Square in Lima, Peru

Regions
Peru expands for an area of 496,225 square miles and is the 3rd largest country in South America. This country lies along the Pacific Ocean in the western part of South America (León). There are three main land regions in Peru. They are the coast, highlands, and Selva. The coast is by the Pacific Ocean (León). It is a d
Lake Titicaca
Lake Titicaca
ry dessert but still has about 50 rivers that come from the mountains which supplies drinking water and irrigation water. This region also includes the foothills of the Peruvian Andes (León). The highlands consist of the areas above 6,500 feet and that includes the Andes Mountains as well as many narrow valleys and plateaus. **Machu Picchu** is located in the Andes Mountains. The highland peaks have snow all year round with some glaciers (León). Not very many trees grow, but the valleys have grass. Many native people use the grassy valleys to graze livestock like llamas and sheep. Peru’s largest lake is Lake Titicaca. It covers 1,914 square miles. It is also the highest lake in the world lying 12,507 meters above sea level. Most of the earthquakes that occur in Peru occur in the highlands. The last major land region is the Selva (León). The Selva’s foothills are covered in green forests and also flat plains. The whole lower part of the Selva consists of rain forests and jungles. The Amazon River runs through this region (León). As you can see, there are many contrasts in these three regions.


The Selva
The Selva

Religion
The government allows freedom of religion to all religious groups, but it favors Roman Catholic (León).85% of Peru’s population is Roman Catholic because it is a result of a Spanish conquest. In 1530 the Spanish came to Peru and brought that religion (León). Nevertheless, not very many people attend church regularly. Throughout the country Catholicism is taught in public schools (León). The main authorities of the Catholic Church live in Lima, Arequipa, Cusco, and Trujillo. There are many celebrations that take place because of the Catholic religion. The major celebration is the **Lord of the Miracles** (León). Other celebrations include Christmas, Corpus Christi and Holy Week. At these celebrations there is food, dancing, meals, and sometimes fairs. People also celebrate by going to mass. There’re also many groups called the evangelical Christians (León).

Government
National Government: In 1821, Peru became independent. Peru is declared a democratic republic in all the constitutions, however dictators have ruled before (León). Under the most recent constitution, accepted in 1993, it says that the president is not only the head of stated, but also the head of government (León). The president can be re-elected once and is elected for a 5 year term. Along with the president, 2 vice presidents are also elected (León). Peru is a presidential representative government and has a multi-party system. A council of Members is elected by the president, which includes a prime minister. This council helps guide the government (León). The county’s laws are made by a one house Congress. There are 120 members in this Congress and they each can serve a 5 year term. The highest court in Peru is the Supreme Court. The present day president is **Alan García**(León). The armed forces have always been important to the Peruvians. Members of the armed forces are involved in politics, road building, police, and military service is voluntary work. There is a total of about 80,000 people in the armed forces and 190,000 in the reserve (León).
Local Government: There are 12 regions divided into 24 departments and the province of Callao (León). The departments are then divided into more provinces. Then the provinces are divided even further into districts (León).


Government Palace in Lima, Peru
Government Palace in Lima, Peru
This is the government house in Lima where the president lives.
Climate
The tropics take up most of Peru. But, there is an ocean current that makes the coast cooler then the tropical region (León). The co
Rain forest in Peru
Rain forest in Peru
astal temperature averages 70 degrees from November to April and from May to October it is about 61 degrees (
León). The air in the coast is very dry and never receives much moisture. It only receives about 2 inches of rainfall in a year (León). In the highlands, the temperatures are lower then the coast because of the high altitudes. At elevations above 10,000 feet frosts occur and at the highest elevations the temperature never goes over freezing (León). From the coast to the Selva the precipitation increases. The Selva gets 80 inches or more of precipitation in a year (León). Dense rain forests cover most of the Selva so it causes the climate to be hot. From November to April the Selva, as well as the eastern highlands have a wet season. The eastern highlands usually receives 40 inches of precipitation annually and the western highlands gets about 10 inches (León).


Economic / Currency
The main occupation in Peru is farming. There are many poor farmers that have their own piece of land. Other farmers work together on a cooperative farm (León). Peru
Terraced farming in Colca Valley, Peru
Terraced farming in Colca Valley, Peru
not only is one of the world’s leading producers of copper, silver, and zinc but it also ranks among the leading fishing countries (
León). Most of the mines lie on the south coast and the highlands store many gold deposits. Every year Peru’s fishing fleets catch large quantities of anchovies which are used throughout the world especially in livestock feed. The country also has claimed 200 miles of water off the coast for fishing (León). The government charges a fee for anyone else to fish in these waters. There are very few manufacturing plants that use mass-production methods (León). Most manufacturing is small scale just by individual craftworkers. However, the few large factories produce furniture, processed foods, steel, chemicals, and wooden textiles. There is approximately 1 car per 50 people in Peru (León).Most of the roads aren’t even paved. The only form of transportation in the Selva is by river. In the highlands, llamas are used as pack mules. Peru has two airports and they connect Lima with other Latin American countries. Peru also has a central railroad that expands to mines in the Andes. The currency is Nuevo sol. It is broken down into 100 centimos (Sturo). However the exchange is very easy if you go to Peru. Most hotels and resorts accept U.S. dollars (Sturo).



Imports/ Exports
The major imports are machinery, manufactured goods, dairy product, meat, wheat, and motor vehicles (León). Peru’s main export crops are coffee, fruit, vegetables, sugar, cotton, copper, and silver. Crops such as corn, potatoes, and rice are just grown for the country. The United States is the primary trading partner with Peru. Others include Canada, Japan, China, and Mexico (León).


History

Pre-Incan Cultures:

It is believed that people first came to Peru as migrants from Asia that slowly moved into South America throughout many years. Peru’s history goes as far back as 5000 BC, when small communities supported by agriculture began to develop (Falconer). These small communities had irrigation fields that helped them survive by producing corn and cotton, as well as hunting deer and other game. They were small communities that were mainly located along the coast line (Corona).
At the beginning of the Initial period, 1800 BC, costal people started to move inland. By doing this people could own more land and therefore grow more food. The initial period is the era when monument building in Peru began. The well known site of Sechin is the best example of the monuments built in this time. It consists of an adobe pyramid with a battle scene carved into the stone pillars surrounding it (Corona).
One of the warrior carvings at Sechin
One of the warrior carvings at Sechin

Even farther inland, at the base of the Andes Mountains more cultures were evolving. In about 800 BC the Chavín culture began to rise around Huaraz, and they were the first to unite people into cultural groups (Falconer). This extremely advanced culture created a drainage system to prevent the Chavin de Huantar temple from flooding during the rainy season. Their irrigation system had been perfected to maximize crop growth, and they domesticated animals such as llamas (Wikipedia).

The Chavín people were very artistic. They had pottery, sculpture and carvings to decorate the temples. Felines and Eagles are common figures seen through out the art (Wikipedia). They were also masters at weaving, some of the cotton was so fine it was said to be like silk (Corona).
The next era of Peru’s history is the Early Intermediate Period from about 300 BC to AD 600 (Corona). The best known tribe of this time is the Nazca. They lived in the dry plains, north of the present day city of Nazca. In the dry plains the people carved huge designs called theNazca Lines (Corona). Some of the designs were as big as 200 feet across and the designs varied from
Nazca Lines
Nazca Lines
animals to geometric shapes (Carroll). One of the most powerful and most advanced groups of this period was the Moche. They lived in the Northern coast of Peru in the Moche Valley (Corona). They constructed large buildings and monuments, irrigation systems that stretches for many miles and they also made beautiful jewelry with stones from far away places which is evidence they were involved in trade networks (Corona). These people were excellent potters as well.
The Wari, in the region of Ayacucho which is close to Nazca helped shape Peru before the Incas. These great warriors lived around AD 800 and controlled much of the Highlands and Coast of Peru (Corona). They grew potatoes and grains by creating artificial islands in swampy lands, which gave them around 7 times more crop then if they grew the crops with other methods in that area. This is because the weather was so cold that it would have killed the crop. But the warmth of the water kept the crops alive each day (Corona). The Wari were the first tribe to take control of surrounding areas by military force (mnsu). But they also destroyed much of the culture of Peru. They dominated any tribe that came in their path, but they didn’t adopt the traditions or religious practices of the tribes they defeated. Which lead to a loss in their cultures and the artifacts of the many tribes (Corona). The Wari people built strong stone building that had ventilation and were earthquake resistant (mnsu). It is thought that the Incan culture came from the Wari because the Wari made a road system which later was used by the Incas (mnsu). The Wari Empire began to decline in 1000 AD and no one knows why it declined, and eventually disappeared (mnsu).


Incas:
The word “Inca” means emperor and the “Incas” means emperor’s people. Like all of the other tribes in the history of Peru, The Incas star
The Incan Empire
The Incan Empire
ted off as a small tribe in the area of Cuzco. But before Manco Capac formed the city-state of Cuzco in around AD 1200, the Incan people belonged to the Killke culture. (Wiki/incas) The expansion of the Incan empire began with the 9th ruler, Pachacuti, in 1442 when he took over the Moche culture (mnsu). The Inca soldiers were very fierce and strong which helped the Incan Empire grow to the largest empire in Pre-Colombian America.(mnsu). But the Incas didn’t expand only by force. Pachacuti also took control of some areas by asking. He would offer them spices and tell them about this wonderful “Incan Empire”. He offered them luxury and other benefits if they joined, and most did (Wiki/incas). The empire was divided into 4 sections, and the 4 corners all met in the capital Cuzco. In the language of the Incans, Quechua, the name of the empire was Tawantinsuyu. This translates to the 4 united regions (wiki/Inca Empire)


Conquest of Peru:
I
Pizzaro and Atahualpa's first meeting
Pizzaro and Atahualpa's first meeting
n 1532 the two brothers Atahualpa and Huascar were in a civil war to win total control of the Empire after their father, the emperor, had died. At this same time Francisco Pizarro was searching for the Incas after hearing of the gold and riches of the empire (wiki/Incas). Atahualpa had just defeated his brother when he invited Pizarro to come visit him at his resting place in Cajamarca. Atahualpa and his 80,000 troops were exhausted when Pizarro arrived (wiki/Inca). But when Atahualpa refused Pizarro’s offer to convert the Empire to Christianity, Pizarro attacked. Pizarro and his 180 men, some horses, cannons and bringing the small pox into the empire, defeated Atahualpa and then killed him in 1533. (Corona). Pizarro then went on to conquer Cuzco. Although the Incas continued to fight the Spanish, the Empire had ended and the Spanish Rule had begun. (geographia).


Peru’s Independence:
When Pizarro founded the city of Lima in 1535 it became the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. In South Ameri
Peruvian Flag
Peruvian Flag
ca, This viceroyalty was the most powerful one of its time (wiki/Peruvian Independence).
In 1821, the army was under the control of José de San Martín. Martín and the viceroy debated for many hours then on July 21, 1821 Martín gained control of Lima. Peruvian independence was declared on July 28, 1821. But the Spanish didn’t give up their viceroyalty with ease. The Spanish regained pieces of their territory for a little but eventually all that was left for them was a little area called Ayacucho (state.gov). Then in 1824, General Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated the Spanish at Ayacucho. This ended the Spanish rule in South America and gained Peru their full independence (world66). Still, Spanish tried to win back their colonies, until 1879 when they gave up and recognized Peru as independent (state.gov). Peruvian Flag link




Peruvian Cuisine

Ancient Peruvian food

Peru is considered to have one of the most diverse cuisines in the world (Peruvian cuisine). But, it didn’t get this title over night; it has taken 7,009 years, and a multitude of different cultures to create such a wide variety of cuisines. This diversity began when early Peruvian civilizations first began establishing themselves in 5000BC (Food in Peru). The wet climate of Peru allowed for a successful production of crops such as cotton, chili peppers, beans, squash, and maize (Food in Peru). These crops production allowed the new civilizations to thrive.

Variedades nativas
Variedades nativas
The potato (above), a staple in the diets of cultures around the world, was first grown in Peru (Food in Peru). Although many other countries have taken after Peru in growing the potato crop, Peru cultivates the most varieties of potatoes and is known as “Potato Capital of the World” (Food in Peru). The over 2,000 potato varieties that are native to the land produce potatoes that range in color from blue and purple to brown, and sizes from a small nut to an orange (Peru at a Glance)!

In 1530 when the Spanish conquered Peru they introduced new foods to the native’s diet such as chicken, pork, and lamb, in return the indigenous people of Peru introduced a variety of potatoes and chilies to the Spaniards (Food in Peru). As European disease stuck the people of Peru, a labor shortage began to arise and African slaves were imported to help with the labor, with them came new traditions and a new type of cuisine (Food in Peru). Then, in 1849 over 100,000 Chinese immigrants came to Peru as laborers for the Andean railway, the places where these immigrants ate became known as fondas, and could be found in many neighborhoods (Jermyn).By today Peru is home to a variety of heritages and their cuisines, including Spanish, Basque, African, Sino-Cantonese, Japanese , Italian, French and British, not to mention the Incans and the original indigenous inhabitants (Peruvian cuisine).


Geographical advantages

Peru’s geographical variety has enabled the Peruvian diet and menu to become one of the most diverse in South America (Peru Food Enjoy the Spice of Peru). Spicy dishes are the focal point of all Peruvian cuisine, these dishes originate from a blend of Spanish and native foods. The staples of a Peruvian’s diet consist of potatoes, rice, beans, fish, and grains. To add flavor and spice to these foods, many Peruvians
Pepper, Aji Crystal
Pepper, Aji Crystal
season with Aji or chili (left), Peru’s most common spice. Other common spices that enhance the Peruvian diet include mint, oregano, basil, parsley, and cilantro; all of which are often used in soups and stews (Food in Peru).Aside from these basics, there are three distinct geographical areas of Peru that divide the food dishes into three types. Each region represents their own cooking style with different ingredients, spices, and recipes to enhance the staples of their diets. The three main culinary regions in Peru, Criolla y Marinero or costal, mountainous/highland, and tropical; each produce a unique type of food based on its geographical location.








Cioppino
Cioppino
The costal cuisine comes from Peru’s coast off the Pacific Ocean, its cuisine can be classified as having five strong influences: Japanese, Moorish, African, Chinese, and the local native (Peruvian cuisine). Peru is a huge fishing nation and this large coast provides an ideal place for catching a wide variety of sea food. The diets of those close to the coast consist mainly of fish or sea food and heavy sauces, but often times to balance this rich meal a bowl of soup is a welcome accompaniment (Food in Peru); the Peruvian coast alone is home to more than two thousand differenttypes of soups (Peruvian cuisine). One being Peru’s national dish, ceviche.Another favorite dish in the Peruvian coast is chupe de camarones or shrimp cioppino (left). It is a dense blend of shrimp stock, potatoes, vegetables, milk, sea food, and chili peppers (Peruvian cuisine).




While the costal region focuses on rich sauces, the Highland area uses many spices to highlight the refreshing
Peruvian Tamale
Peruvian Tamale
taste of their foods. Diets of people in the mountains or highlands often include potatoes, corn, rice, and meats such as beef and pork (Food in Peru). A popular dish in the highlands that Americans are fairly familiar with is the tamale (right), a corn dumpling, filled with meat, wrapped in a corn husk, and steamed; tamales are often served by street venders in Peru (Peruvian cuisine). Aside from beef and pork, there is a wide and unusual variety of meat in a highlander’s diet. Many dishes include the use of lamb (borrego), raw fish marinated in lime or lemon juice (ceviche), guinea pig (cuy), or cow tongue (lengua), llamas, boars, and monkeys (Food in Peru). Soups made with fresh herbs and spices, onions, eggs, and fish are also common in this area.

Chirimoya
Chirimoya
Finally, the tropicalcuisine combines the fresh fish from the costal region with the interesting meats of the mountain people; it is more known for its delicious actual food rather than the recipies or dishes. Jungle cuisine uses namely natural resources and local products, turtles are often a commonly hunted animal in the tropical areas of Peru; even though turtle hunting is prohibited by law. Because of this, turtle dishes do not often appear on menus and must be ordered by special request (Peruvian cuisine).
The fresh produce that is readily available in this region creates the basis for the tropical diet. Some of these tropical fruits are Chirimoya (left), a deliciously sweet green fruit, Lúcuma, a small brown nutty fruit, and Tuna, a sweet fruit from a the cactus plant(Peru at a Glance).


Meal time customs


Meals in Peru and meals in America are somewhat similar, both serve three meals a day, breakfast, lunch, and dinner; and dessert if you’re lucky. However, their eating habbits are based more on their lives and out of necessity rather than cravings or quick fixes. They tend to eat meals that will supply them with energy for an entire day’s worth of work. The typical Peruvian is responsible for the cultivation of their own land and often spends much of their day tending to the crops (Food in Peru). To do this, a villager’s day begins very early at the crack of dawn. Every morning breakfast is served by the mother or wife; this may consist of mate (an herbal tea), triangle shaped rolls, corn, bread, juice, or coffee (Food in Peru). On Sundays however, this breakfast can vary. It is customary to have tamale, a pork sandwhich known as a Chicharron, and black coffee. Lunch is the most important and biggest meal of the day in Peru (Food in Peru). Common lunch dishes include a thick potato, corn, and barley broth, vegetables in an avocado chili sauce, a beer for the adults, and fruit juice or hot cocoa for the children (Food in Peru). Another popular option is BBQ chicken with French fries and ceviche. A late dinner is costmary for Peruvians; it is fairly similar to lunch, however smaller and often lighter. Generally, between one and two thirds of the meal consists of potatoes, the rest is completed with either meat or marinated sea food (Food in Peru). Sweet desserts are often the finishing part in a Peruvians day, a churro, a fried honey pastry covered in cinnamon sugar is a favorite among the crowds. This however is just one of the more than 250 traditional Peruvian desserts (Peruvian cuisine).
More often that not, Peruvians share their meals with their immediate family, however small get-togethers and semi formal occasions are not uncommon in a Peruvian household. The host offers great hospitality and always prepares the meal for the guests. On these occasions the invited guest wears nice clothes and often brings a small gift of flowers, chocolate, or wine to give to the host in appreciation (Food in Peru).
These are the manners at home, but what’s it like to eat out in Peru? Dining out in Peru is fairly casual and there’s no need to get all gussied up even if you are going out for dinner. However, timing your outing is what’s important. Many eateries shut down after lunch for a few hours before they reopen for dinner (Fodor's). It is customary for the locals to eat late; diner usually starts around 8 if not later (Fodor's).


Religious and Holiday celebrations


Catholicism is the dominant Peruvian religion due to the influx of Spaniards in the 1530’s and their heavy influence upon the culture (Food in Peru). As in America, Peru joyously celebrates Christian holidays such as Easter, Christmas, and All Saints’ Day (Food in Peru). Delicacies and treats such as sweet mango juice, bakery rolls, sugar coated doughnuts, and flans are Christmas favorites enjoyed by all Peruvians.
Other celebrations include Carnavales, a national holiday which takes place a few days before Lent (Food in Peru). Many people partake in drinking and dancing before the Lenten fasting period begins. Food is a very important aspec
On the way to the star of snow by gornabanja.
On the way to the star of snow by gornabanja.
t of these and other celebrations. In theStar Snow Festival (right), people from all over Peru walk throughout the Andes Mountains until they reach a temple Ausangate on the mountain (Jermyn). Peruvians make offerings to the mountain god with such gifts as cookies, candies, and llama fat. One their way down the mountain, some cut ice to bring back to their villages; after letting it melt, they boil this ice and mix it with barely to make a warm drink (Jermyn). Chicha, a corn beer, has been brewed and enjoyed in Peru since ancient times (Jermyn). Traditionally, chicha has been drunk during religious festivals or celebrations; now, it can be enjoyed on any given day (Jermyn). Chicha can also be served unfermented, making it into a tasty nonalcoholic beverage for Peruvian children. A delicacy often prepared for festivals or celebrations is Cuy or guinea pig. For other more casual nonreligious celebrations, such as a birthday, families simply enjoy an evening out by going to a restaurant. Whether it is Christmas or the Star Snow Festival, people from all over Peru come together to celebrate with family and friends and enjoy delicious foods to celebrate the holidays.

Popular restaurants


external image pescados%20capitales.jpg The best restaurants in Peru are often found in Lima, the capital. The best dining here can be found in the Miraflores district of Lima, famous for its up-scale dining, shopping, parks, beaches, and gardens. Restaurants in Lima offer the most varied types of food, both national and international. Because of this wide range of cuisines, eateries have experienced a huge growth in the dining scene. Lima is located on the coast of Peru; so many restaurants offer fresh sea foods dishes at a reasonable price. However, if you’re in the mood for seafood it’s best to have it for lunch since many of the local fish restaurants close by 5 or 6 (Fodor's). As mentioned before, ceviche is one of Peru’s most popular dishes;
Pescados Capitales (left) is a well known restaurant in the Miraflores district that is famous for its ceviche (
Fodor's). Pescados Capitales is a lunch only seafood restaurant, although this is a slight inconvenience, it pleases the palates of the local and is well known for its creative menu.



Asian cuisine, Chinese and Japanese, are among the other unexpected racial influences in Peru. Lately though, Peru has become famous for their chifas, or restaurants serving Chinese food with a Peruvian twist. The local Peruvian ingred
Sushi Bar
Sushi Bar
ients like the aji chili pepper revamp many classic Chinese dishes with a new distinctive taste (
Fodor's). The more upscale chifas often offer sushi bars (right), however these are less popular than the down to earth chifas that offer fish and chicken dishes for a lower fare and can be found in nearly every neighborhood.
A well known sushi bar in Lima is Matsuei, serves a delicate blend of Peruvian and Japanese cuisines. Peruvian families and couples dine here in dime lighting over foods like eel rolls, prawns, avocado sesame seed rolls, and the famous house sauce (Fodor's). Though cevicherías and chifas are the most popular types of restaurants, Peru has more to offer; the fares can range from classic Peruvian, French, Italian, American, Mexican, German, Latin, and even Swiss (Fodor's). Regardless of where you are dining in Peru, the diversity of restaurants is guaranteed to satisfy the pickiest of pallets.


Entertainment in Peru

In Peru, much like any other country, entertainment is very relevant to society. Peruvians indulge in art, sports and hobbies, film, music, and books. Peruvian entertainment, like any other society, is influenced by the culture of their ancestors. In Peru the ancestry is mainly of Andean, Hispanic and Amerindian descent (Culture of Peru). The diversity of culture in Peru helps traditions and customs thrive. These customs lead to a wide variety of entertainment in areas listed above, such as art.
ART
During pre-Columbian times, Peru was a leader in artistic expression, and they have remained that way throughout the years. Many pre-Incan cultures first began making pottery, jewelry, textiles and sculpture , but advanced to a more complicated form of art: architecture. Machu Picchu and buildings in the city of Cuzco are great examples of ancient Peruvian art. Although Peru was a significant leader in art during pre-Colombian periods, their modern art is stunning as well. Artists such as Cesar Calvo De Arujo, who is a native of Loreto, Peru (Cesar Calvo de Arujo), help to advance modern Peruvian art. Cesar was a skilled painter and writer; in fact he was very influential to Peruvian art. Cesar dedicated his life’s work to depicting his homeland in his art (Cesar Calvo de Arujo). Cesar often held most of his art exhibits in Lima, Peru (Cesar Calvo de Arujo), and all of his paintings were jungle region topics. The picture above is one of Cesar’s most famous, and as you can see the setting is a jungle region. Another famous Peruvian artist is Pablo Marcos, who was a comic book artist and commercial illustrator. Pablo Marcos worked on American comics, such as Batman and Conan the Barbarian (Pablo Marcos). The majority of Marcos’ work was done in the 1970’s (Pablo Marcos), however, he is best known for his Marvel Comic character “The Zombie.” In Peru Marcos was known as a
A painting by Cesar Calvo de Arujo
A painting by Cesar Calvo de Arujo
political cartoonist for many newspapers. In America Marcos illustrated for Marvel comics, and several other companies.


SPORTS

Sports, such as soccer and taekwondo are also significant to Peruvian entertainment. These sports have been popular past times for all people of Peru, especially soccer. This sport is greatly embraced throughout many Hispanic countries, including Peru. In this country, socc
Teofilio Cubllias
Teofilio Cubllias
er is widespread, and played throughout most of Peru. The Peruvian soccer team has made four world cup appearances in 1930, 1970, 1978, and 1982 (Sport in Peru). Overall, soccer is important to the culture of Peru, and is a way of uniting their people. This picture portraysTeofilo Cubllias, the most successful Peruvian striker in the world cup (Sport in Peru).


FILM

Although the film industry of Peru is not as established as that of Mexico or Argentina (Cinema of Peru), it is gaining in popularity. In the 1960’s and 70’s, movies were produced prolifically with the help of talent from Mexico (Cinema of Peru). Many great movies that were made in Peru were transformed in to movies from best-selling novels. Examples of this are the movies “No Se lo Digas a Nadie,” and “La Mujer de Mi Hermano” (Cinema of Peru). People such as Francisco Jose Lombardi, who is perhaps the most significant Film maker in Peru (Cinema of Peru), help the industry in Peru grow and thrive. Lombardi has made many Peruvian films, including “No se lo Digas a Nadie.”
Francisco Jose Lombardi
Francisco Jose Lombardi

Another interesting fact about the Peruvian film industry is that they produced the first 3-D animation film in Latin America (Cinema of Peru), “Piratos en el Callao.” A year later, after the success of the first movie, they produced another 3-D animation film called “Dragones: Destino de Fuego” (Cinema of Peru). In February 2006, a movie named “Madeinusa” was made jointly between Spain and Peru (Cinema of Peru). This movie won many awards, including one at the Rotterdam film festival (Cinema of Peru). Many famous Actors have also come from Peru. Actors such as Henry Ian Cusick and Benjamin Bratt are famous Peruvian- American actors. Cusick is a Scottish-Peruvian actor who acts on the popular American TV show “LOST”. For this role he received an Emmy nomination (List of Peruvians). Benjamin Bratt is also an Emmy nominated television actor, who has appeared in several popular movies such as “Miss Congeniality” and “Traffic.” Benjamin is also a regular character on the popular show “Law and Order.”

Benjamin Bratt
Benjamin Bratt


MUSIC

Music is a very significant part of Peruvian entertainment, as well as Peruvian culture. Traditional Peruvian music comes from ancient Andean traditions and instruments (Mauleon). Traditional Andean instruments are the panpipes, flutes, drums and percussion instruments (Mauleon). Peruvian music is dedicated to passing on traditions of Peruvian ancestors. A significant type of music in Peru is Afro Peruvian(Mauleon ). This music was a result or the slave population in costal regions of Peru. This music is represented in the style called “Creole” or people of the coast. This style evolved in to many important dances and musicians of Peru. This music style became popular in the 1950’s when the music was recorded wi
Eva Ayllon
Eva Ayllon
th the Spanish guitar and other indigenous Peruvian instruments.
Many famous Peruvian musicians such as Eva Ayllon have influenced the culture and music of Peru. Eva is a composer and singer, and a significant Afro- Peruvian musician (Eva Ayllon). Eva has produced 20 records so far, and formed the musical group “The Children of the Sun” (Eva Ayllon)

Books
An important author who came from Peru is Mario Vargas Llosa (Mario Vargas Llosa). He was a significant Peruvian author, as well as an essayist. It has been said that Mario has had a greater impact world-wide than any other writer of the Latin American Boom (Mario Vargas Llosa). His novels include Conversations in the Cathedral and The Green House.






Bibliography

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"Cevic"Ceviche -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. 23 Apr. 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceviche>.

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Entertainment

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"Culture of Peru ." Wikipedia. 30 April 2009. 3 May 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Culture_of_Peru>.
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"Eva Ayllon." Wikipedia. 18 April 2009. 3 May 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eva_Ayllón>.
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Mauleon, Rebecca. "Peru: Nat Geo Music." National Geographic. 3 May 2009 <http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/worldmusic/view/page.basic/country/content.country/peru_16"Pablo Marcos." Wikipedia. 05 April 2009. 3 May 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pablo_Marcos>.
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