Peru
Sam Garton• Vivian Luong• Jared Coffer• Jordan Miller



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--Table of Contents-----------------------1. General Info
2. History
3. Entertainment
4. Food & Cuisine
5. Bibliography
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General Information

Population:
The overall population of Peru sums up to be about 28,674,757 people. The ethnic groups of these people are 45% Amerindian, 37% Mestizo, 15% White, Black, Japanese, Chinese, and 3% other (Country Reports). The language primarily spoken in Peru is Spanish, but there is also Quechua, Aymara, and other Amazonian languages. The main Religion in Peru is Catholic, for it inherited it from the Spanish Conquest. There is an 11-year education system made after the 1968 revolution (Peru Travel Adventures). In 1990, only 58.6 school-age children where attending school at the time, even though there were 27 national and 19 private universities (Peru Travel Adventures). The average life expectancy for men is about 63 and 67 for women. Over 25% of urban residences and over 90% of rural residences potable water and sewage (Peru Travel Adventures).


Regions:
Peru is has been divided into 25 different regions, and one province (Peru Regions). The province, Lima, is the largest city in Peru. It is located on the central west coast. The city is loud, polluted, and covered in a fog for the majority of the year. Aside from Lima's condition, Peru is home to quite an amazing Climate and Geography.
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Economy:
Peru's economy makes a GDP of about 217,500,000,000. Peru is run by a Constitutional Government. The work force of Peru sums up to about 9,419,000 having work done in agriculture, mining, manufacturing, construction, transport, and other services (Country Reports). The average person in Peru makes about 7,600. As of 2007, the unemployment rate is at 6.9% (Country Profile). The industries in Peru involve with mining of metals, petroleum, fishing, textiles, clothing, food processing, cement, auto assembly, steel, shipbuilding, and metal fabrication (Country Reports). From its agriculture, it gains coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, plantains, coca, poultry, beef, dairy products, wool, and fish. Peru makes about 27,140,000,000 a year for exporting a variety of different fish and fish products, gold, copper, zinc, crude petroleum and byproducts, lead, coffee, sugar and cotton (Country Reports). Peru is exporting partners with the U.S, the U.K, China, Switzerland, and Japan. Peru spends about 18,750,000,000 a year for importing machinery, transport equipment, a variety of foods, petroleum, iron, steel, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals (Country Reports). Peru is importing partners with the U.S, Spain, Chile, Brazil, and Columbia.




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History


The history of Peru is known to have a rich and unique heritage among the nations of the southern continents. It contains a pass that goes back over 1,000 years of the most harsh and spectacular environments in the world (M.Porter). One thing that Peru is known for is their empire that in a short amount of time expanded and took over many other great empires. In a little more then one hundred years Peru's empire that covered one third of the South American continent surpassed many of the worlds history. Peru's independence is known very well in an extremely interesting way. How they came about their independence was different from other surrounding countries. "Outsiders" played a big part in Peru's independence, that was proclaimed on July 28, 1821(M. Porter). Their independence was largely the work of Venezuelan Simon Bolivar Palacios and Argentine Jose de San Martin. Peru also had a very traumatic period, it was the period of their conquest. This signified a change in the society and the beliefs of the inhabitants of Peru. During this period the Vice Regency dominated Peru and politically organized the management of the government. In this era great campaigns were also achieved. Also there were several rebellions that happened. The biggest was led by an Indian chief Tupac Amary II.
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Machu Picchu
Peru is very famous for their mysterious ruins of Machu Picchu. Machu Picchu is a city that is located in near the Andes Mountains (M. Porter). It lies 43 miles north west of Cuzco and is just one of Peru's many attractions. In Peru their are many different kinds of people and history that goes with them. Since pre- columbian time Peruvians have been divided just by nature. From the arid deserts of the coast, the Andean Sierra rises up to 19,700 feet(M. Porter). The highlands comprise about a quarter of Peru's territory, but are home to about half of Peru's population.




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Entertainment


Music:
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Peruvian Music Instruments

Music are very popular among all Peruvians. They have a huge variety of music ranging from traditional music to the latest hits from the United States or from other countries (León). Modern international music are more of a widespread with the new generation of people, but traditional songs are still favored. Traditional songs are mostly about Peru, Peruvian culture, people’s emotions, or animals (Peru 1). These songs are often played on flutes, panpipes, drums, rattles and a small harp. The three main instruments for traditional music would be the charango, small guitar of sorts; the antara, assortment of vertically placed flutes tied together; and the quena, which is like a recorder (Peru 1). Mestizo music are very similar that performs on the same instruments except with a mix of guitars, fiddles and horns (James).
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Marinera Dance

There are many kinds of dance music in Peru, two of these kinds would be the Marinera and the Chicha. The Marinera is the national dance music of Peru. It’s origin is unknown, though it is said to be influenced by the African, Spanish, and Peruvian (Peru Music). It has an upbeat dance tune that is very passionate and alive performed by using the cajon, guitar, and the bugle (Peru Music). Chicha music established in Colombia has more of an up-beat, faster style tune and lyrics played with energetic percussion and electric guitar on the background. You would find this type of music playing in the highlands that is played at many Saturday night fiestas (Kieran).

Music Negra, translated into Black Music, are well known to be the style that reveals the diversity and the history of Peruvian music. This type of music was developed back in the old slave communities that refers to social protests and the daily life in those communities (Kieran).

Sports:
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Some members of la Blanquirroja

The most popular ranked sport in Peru is fútbol which is also known as soccer (León). Soccer is Peru’s national sport that is liked by the majority of people. World Cup competitions are a big exciting deal with Peruvians especially if their national team is competing in it (Peru 1). Peru has made it into four FIFA World Cups and two Olympic tournaments for soccer. Their national team are called la Blanquirroja, “the white and the red”, which represents their team colors (Feshlier). Other sports that are Peruvians favorites includes basketball, volleyball, gymnastics, and bullfights (Peru 2). Pool, tenpin bowling, golf, swimming, tennis, polo are usually for the wealthier class in the cities (Peru 1).

Arts:
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Paintings from Cusco, Peru
Peru has a huge variety of art works to choose from including wood carvings, stone sculpture, pottery, painting, and more. Because of the high quality and unique designs of Peru, the network of exports to other places has increased. Most of the arts and crafts stores could be found in Lima or other Peruvian cities (Palfrey). One of the best Peru art shop would be the Peru Arts and Craft Stores, selling leather goods, jewelery, tapestries, musical instruments, mirrors, copper sculptures, and more (Palfrey). Peruvian arts are separated into two main categories, the Pre-Columbian art and the Inca Art. Pre-Columbian arts ceramics are very well known to many such as the Moche pottery, Moche metalwork, and the effigy pots. Some popular form of arts from the Inca would consist of Peruvian Mirrors, Inca Ceramics, Andean Painting, Carved Stone, Tapestries and Rugs (Palfrey).


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Foods & Cuisine

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Exotic Fruit Basket

The Pacific Ocean is the principal source of aquatic resources for Peru. Peru is in the top two producers and exporters of fish meal and livestock. Peru is home to many exotic fish and fruits. Many of these factors influence foods in Peru (Fleshier). The main foods in Peru include rice, beans, fish, and many different and exotic fruits. Soups are also a very popular dish is Peru. The upper and lower class have very different eating style. Among the Indians, corn and a dish called Cebiche (this is raw fish seasoned with lemon and vinegar) is popular (Smith 2). Ceviche Peruano (a type of marinated fish) and arroz con leche (a rice and milk dessert) are a few great recipes (Smith 2). A variety of drinks are also served with meals, this includes typical soft drinks, beer, and local drinks. Many of the foods served in Peru depend on the region one is in. The four most popular regions are the Coastal, Jungle, City, and Northern Style Cusines. Along the coast a wide variety of fish and meats are served. The Northern style of cooking is the most middle class cuisine. The most popular dishes here are the stews, soups, and meats. The Jungle Cusine has a wide variety of exotic fruits and fish. Finally, the city cusine is composed of a majority of stews, potatoes, some fruits, and meats (Fleshier). Table manners are an important aspect of Peru. A polite person will eat all the food on their plate, this is so the cook is not offended. Both hands are kept above the table at all times, but not elbows (Smith 2). Typical families eat three meals a day, just as Americans do. Dinner is normally served at around eight pm and some eat a pre-dinner about six pm. Families normally eat at home except for special occasions. Dinning out is a very special occasion. Families like to eat together but it is not required (Smith 2).


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Bibliography


General Information Lederman, Leon. Amuata Spanish School. 3 May 2009. http://www.amautaspanish.com/amautaspanish/english/peru/religion.asp

Palfrey, Andrew. Maps of World. 20 Apr. 2009 <http://www.mapsofworld.com/peru/people-culture-festivals/religion.html>

James, Henry. Country Reports. 27 Apl. 2009. <http://www.countryreports.org/>

Law, Gwillim. Peru Regions. 24 Apr. 2009. http://www.statoids.com/upe.html


History of the CountryChami. "Peru." Peru History. 14 Apr. 2009.

"Incan People." Incan People. 20 Apr. 2009 <www.ancientweb.org/peru/theancientweb>.

Porter M. "Peru." Peru. 14 Apr. 2009 <www.mantrav.cu.uk/peru.php>.

"Peru" World Book Encyclopedia. 15th ed. New York, 2006.


EntertainmentIncalink || Culture made art - Home. 03 May 2009 <http://www.incalink.com/>.

Feshlier, Ana Marie. Peru.11 April 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/peru>.

James, Henry. Country Reports. 15 April. 2009 <http://www.countryreports.org/>.

Kieran, Falconer. Cultures of the World PERU. Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 1995.

León, Miguel A. “Peru.” World Book Student. 2009. 15 April 09. 3 April 2009 <http://www.worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar42560>.

Palfrey, Andrew. Maps of World. 03 May 2009 <http://www.mapsofworld.com/peru/people-culture-festivals/art.html>.

“Peru.” CultureGrams World Edition. 2009. ProQuest. 15 April 2009 <http://online.culturegrams.com/world/world_country.php?contid=7&wmn=South_America&cid=125&cn=Peru>.

"Peru". The World Book Enclyclopedia. P.14-15 edition. 2006.

"Peru Art and Architecture." PERU TRAVEL: Peru travel tourist information guide. 03 May 2009 <http://www.peru-travel.net/peru_travel_center/art.htm>.

"Peru Music." Peru Facts | Peru Culture | Food and Hiking. 02 May 2009 <http://www.perufacts.org/perumusic.html>.


Foods and CuisineFalconer, Kieran. Cultures of the War, Peru. New York: Marshall Cavendish Corperation, 1995.

Feshlier, Ana Marie. Peru.11 April 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/peru>.

"Peru". The World Book Enclyclopedia. P.15 edition. 2006.

Smith, Joan. Peruvian Cusine. 4 April 2009.< http://www.countryreports.org/people/recipeDetail.aspx?countryId=193&recipeid=954>.



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