iChile!


By Kody Wright, Seth Ashcroft, Brunson Fazekas, and Chrissy Rudolph

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Official Name: Republic of Chile (Chile)
Population: 16,610,707 (CIA)Coastline: 4,300 km (2,700 miles) long and 240 km (150 miles) at it’s widest point
756,945 sq km (302,778 sq miles)
Possessions include Juan Fernandez Islands and Easter Island
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Moai Quarry, Ranu Raraku Volcano, Unesco World Heritage Site, Easter Island (Rapa Nui), Chile
(Welcome to Chile)
Elevation: 522 meters (1,712 feet)
Climate: arid desert in the north, Mediterranean in the middle and cool and damp in the south (Chile).
Terrain
: desert in the north, fertile in the central valley and volcanoes and lakes in the south. The Andes Mountains border the eastern side while the Pacific Ocean borders the western side (Welcome to Chile).
Capital:Santiago
Ethnicity: 95.4% white and white Amerindian
4% Mapuche
.6% other indigenous groups (CIA)

Language: Spanish is the official language, but Mapudugun, German and English are also used (CIA).
Government
: Republic containing three independent and distinct branches.
The Executive- headed by the highest authority in the land, the President of the Republic
The Judiciary- with its highest tribunal, the Supreme Court
The Legislature-which has a Chamber of Deputies (or House of Representatives) and a Senate (Chilean Government-Territory).

Religion: 89% Roman Catholic
11% Protestant

Currency: pesos
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Chilean celebrated holidays:
(Chile Travel)
January1- New Year’s Day
March or April- Easter/Holy Week
May - Labor Day (Day of the Worker)
May 21
-Navy Day
June 22-Corpus Cristi Day
June 29- St. Peter/ Saint Paul
August 15- Assumption of Mary1st Monday in September- National Reconciliation Day
September 18- Independence Day
September 19- Armed Forces Day
October 12- Columbus Day
November 1- All Saints Day
December 8- Immaculate Conception
December 25- Christmas


Chile has a unique geography being a thin, long line of terrain. Chile stretches over 2,700 miles long, but never exceeds 150 miles wide. The country is more than 18 times longer than it’s widest point (Welcome to Chile). All along it’s length Chile is marked by a narrow depression between the mountains and the sea (Welcome to Chile).

Chile has very distinct regions . The northern land rises and becomes more arid ending at the forbidding Atacama Desert (Welcome to Chile). In some parts of this desert it never rains, but at night a heavy coastal fog known as camanchaca is formed obscuring vision at 50 paces but dissipating in the heat of the morning sun (Chilean Government-Territory).

At the south end of Chile the land falls away terminating at Patagonia (Welcome to Chile). The southern extremity is marked by Cape Horn, a treacherous headland surrounded by almost continuously storm-tossed seas and passable only through the foggy stillness of the Strait of Magellan. In the Strait of Magellan, winds blow at more than 100 kilometers per hour, and the waters are fickle and treacherous (Welcome to Chile). Here rain is abundant dotting the land with lakes making it a fisherman’s paradise.

Vineyard.jpgIn the center of the country is a long river valley. It’s a 500mile corridor filled in the north with vineyards and the south filled with great farms and lakes (Welcome to Chile). About 85% of Chile’s population lives in urban areas, 40% living in greater Santiago. Most have Spanish ancestry.There are a number of Irish, English and German immigrants. There are 800,000 Native Americans mostly of the Mapuche Tribe. Who reside in the south-central area. The language spoken is Spanish, but you will also hear English, German and Mapudugun (CIA). The Aymara and Diaquita groups are found in the northern desert valleys (Chile).

The people are mostly Roman Catholic making up 89% of the religious population. The other 11% are Protestant (Chile).

The Chilean government has pursued sound economic policies the past three decades(Chile). They welcome foreign investment and are committed to free trade. Chile has signed trade agreements with 58 countries. Chile produces wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, livestock and fish(Chile). They rely greatly on their exports consisting of copper, fishmeal, fruits, wood products, paper products, fish, and wine. Their major markets include U.S., Japan, China, Netherlands, South Korea, Brazil, Italy and Mexico. Their imports are mostly consumer goods, chemicals, motor vehicles, fuels, electrical machinery, heavy industrial machinery and foods coming in from EU, Argentina, US, Brazil, China and North Korea (Chile).

Chile is a Republic Government containing three independent and distinct branches (Chile).
The highest authority in the land, the President of the Republic, heads the Executive- branch. The Judiciary branch with its highest tribunal, the Supreme Court. The Legislature has a Chamber of Deputies (or House of Representatives) and a Senate. The political parties are grouped into two major coalitions: 1) the center-left "Concertacion", which includes the Christian Democrat Party, the Socialist Party, the Party for Democracy, and the Radical Social Democratic Party; and 2) the center-right "Alliance for Chile", which includes the National Renewal Party and the Independent Democratic Union. The Communist Party joined the Humanistic Party and a number of smaller parties to form the "Together We Can" coalition in 2004, but none of these leftist parties have recently elected congressional representatives. A new center-left party, "Chile-First," was established in October 2007(Chile).




The History of Chile Ancient Peoples

The rich history of Chile began thousands of years ago with the Mapuche and Aymara tribes. The Aymara inhabited the north, and the Mapuche reigned
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Members of a modern day Mapuche tribe
over the south. The Aymara have a great culture, but unfortunately little is known about their ancient past. The tribe made its home in the area Tiahuanaco. For hundreds of years, the group lived peacefully, until about 1483 when the Peruvian Inca empire invaded. (Chile.com)It was a long struggle that the Aymara endured, but in the end the Incas took over the tribe and all of their land. Although the Aymaran were no longer “free”, they still practiced their customs and worshiped their own gods. Miles away their was another group, the Mapuche. This tribe ruled over the southern part of Chile, and was very strong and had great military strategies. (Chile.com)Today, the Mapuche still live in southern Chile, and keep their heritage strong. The Mapuche are thought to be the oldest tribe to inhibit Chile, due to artifacts dating back 10,000 years. The Incas also tried to take over the Mapuche, but were unsuccessful and returned back to Peru
. The Mapuche still live in Chile, and strongly continue to practice their culture.





Spanish Conquering

Chile was first discovered by the infamous explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1520. He accidentally stumbled u
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Pedro de Valdivia, a Spanish explorar of Chile
pon the country while on a conquest for gold. His hunt was extremely unsucessful. Magellan left Chile and the country was not heard of again until 1541, when Pedro de Valdivia returned to conquer the land. Although Chile did not posses any gold, Valdivi knew that the land was prospourous, and that the soil was very rich. He founded the countries capital, Santiago, and dubbed himself the first governer. (Chile.com)The new Spanish rulings did not sit well with the natives. Angered by the changes, the Mapuche leader, Lautaro, organized a rebellion against Valdivia. The fight was a massacre, leaving many Spainards dead or fataly wounded. Valdivia himself too perished. The encounter was given the name the Battle of Tucapel. (Info Please)Much to the peoples disappointment, the Spanish government remained in Chile, and formed stricter laws. Those who rebelled against the government were put into slavery. This helped the Spainards to keep the people under control, but only for so long. After countless years of fighting, the Abolition of Slavery act was passed in 1683. (Chile)However, the Spanish ruled over Chile for about the next 200 years.





Fight For Independence

Chile officially declared their right for independence on September 18, 1810. Two of the most influencial men in the war were Jose de San Matin and Bernado O'Higgins. The two bold generals were the ones who officially proclaimed Chiles independence.(Chile)They also rallied up the natives to make them want to fight.The Chileans gained their final motivation to declare the war wh
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A drawing of the Chileans battling the Spainards
en they heard of the overthrowing of Ferdinand VII by Napoleon. Hearing that the Spanish weren’t invincible, the Chileans thought that just maybe, they could defeat them too. The war can be divided into three parts, Patria Vieja, Reconquista, and Patria Nueva. (History-Chile)Patria Vieja is the begining part of the war. This is the first stage, and is when Chile officially declared war. It also covers before the declaration was made, during the consideration process. Patria Vieja covers the time prior to the war and the very begining. The next stage of the war was the Reconquista. Reconquista era covers all the battles fought in the war. This part of the war covers from about 1812-1822. The last and final part of the war was the Patria Nueva. This is the final part of the fight, and covers the conclusive battle in 1824. The era also streches up until when the Spainards officially left Chile, in 1826. (History-Chile)However, Spain did not reconize Chile as an independent country until 1840. The war roughly lasted 16 years, and had many significant battles. Some of these include the Battle of Chacabuco, on February 12, 1817. Also the Battle of Cancha Rayada, which took place on March 18, 1818. Lastly and most importantly the Battle of Ayacucho, on December 9, 1824.(History Highlights of Chile)






Important and Significant Events

31000BCE- First sign of human life in Chile
600 AD- Estimated start of Easter Island
1475- Peru begins attempt to take over Chile
1483- Peruvian troops succesfuly takes over the Aymara land
1492- Peru fails at trying to take over the Mapuche tribe
1520- Ferdinand Magellan stumbles upon Chile
1541- Pedro de Valdivia returns and founds the capital Santiago

1553- Rebellion against Valdivia
1683- Abolition of Slavery
1810- Ferdinand VII overthrown by Napoloen
1810, September 18- Chile officially declares the War for Independence
1814- Spain regains temporary control over Chile
1817, February 12- Battle of Chacbuco
1818, March 18- Battle of Cancha Rayada
1818- Chile gains independence
1824- December 9- Battle of Ayacucho
1826- Final Spanish troops leave Chile
1840- Independence of Chile is reconized by the Spanish government
1879- War of the Pacific begins with Peru and Bolivia
1884- Chile pulls out of War, but gained territory before withdrawing
1927- General Carlos Ibanez del Campo seizes Chile and becomes the first dictator
1958- Comunist party banned






Food and Cuisine Customs of Chile


Meal Hours and Typical Meals
The Normal Chilean usually will eat four meals per day, beginnin g with a light breakfast of toast with a well sugared cup of coffee or tea. (chile food and drink) Lunch is considered as the main meal of the day and is generally served between about 1 and 3 pm, when some restaurants will offer excellent fixed-price specials in addition to their regular menu. (chile food and drink) Many businesses will shut their doors during the hours of 1 to 3 pm and it is not unusual for large companies to let their phone ring during this time. (chile food and drink)
Chile has some of the worlds finest and most various seafood and many traditional meals are specialties from the sea.(chile food and drink) Their vineyards between the ocean and the Andes on rich volcanic soil are compared to the best of the Mediterranean and California. (chile food and drink) Unlike other places in South America, wine is not reserved for just the upper class alone.
EMPANADA DE PINO - typical turnover filled with diced meat, onions, olive, raisins and a piece of hard-boiled egg, baked in earthen or plain oven.
EMPANADA DE PINO - typical turnover filled with diced meat, onions, olive, raisins and a piece of hard-boiled egg, baked in earthen or plain oven.
(chile food and drink)
Snacks in Chile can be any of the junk food that we eat in the United States, as well as some filling favorites which can be found in convenience stores and delis. (chile foods) The empanada is a pastry usually filled with pino (a unique combo of stewed beef and onion) and/or queso (cheese).

Popular Foods and Drinks
Popular meals in Chile mainly consist of lots of meats, especially beef and chicken, rice and potatoes, fresh fruit and vegetables straight out of Central Chile. Even though seafood is the most common kind of food for meals, it is not. But you will surely be able to find a fresh seafood selection on every menu. (chile food and drink) A very popular bread that they eat is call Pan de Pascua, or Christmas Bread. (chile foods) Another Popular cake is the Torta de Pina, Or Pineapple Cake. (Torta de Pina) This is what I made and brought in.

Some popular drinks that Chileans like are mostly alcoholic drinks but there is some non-alcoholic ones that the kids like to drink. (chile guide)
BIGOTEADO - (Warning: avoid drinking this no matter what state you are in!!!) This 'drink' contains the leftovers of any glasses that happen to be lying around which are then poured into one resulting in combinations that test the most harden of stomachs. This is usually given to someone as a joke when they have had so much to drink that they don't realize what they are currently consuming in front of them. (chile guide)
BORGOÑA - Cold red wine with chopped strawberries. (chile guide)
CERVEZA - Beer. (chile guide)
LECHE CON PLÁTANO - fresh milk blended with banana. (chile guide)
MOTE CON HUESILLO - cooked dried peaches and stewed corn served as a drink. (chile guide)
NAVEGADO - heated red wine with slices of orange and sugar. (chile guide)
PONCHE A LA ROMANA - Champagne with Pineapple ice-cream. Typically served on New Year's Eve. (chile guide)
VINO BLANCO - white wine. (chile guide)
VINO TINTO - red wine. (chile guide)
Important Restaurants

In Chile they have a lot of the same chains of restaurants like we have in the United States like Chili’s, McDonalds, lots of fast food places and more. The most popular and culture based restaurants in Chile are Azul Profundo, Como Agua Para Chocolate, and Due Torri (Le). These three restaurants have the type of C hilean food that is known only in Chile. These may be expensive, but if you ever visit Chile you must go to one of these three places in not all.



Entertainment

Sports and Recreation

Chilean player in a game
Chilean player in a game
The dominant sport that is played in Chile is fùtbol, or otherwise known as soccer.(Chilean Culture) Up to 80,000 people are gathered at Santiago’s National Stadium to enjoy their favorite teams play soccer. (Santiago's) Kids in Chile have many hobbies to help past the time. One of these includes flying kites. Not just kids but adults enjoy flying kites for entertainment and amusement.(Sports and Recreation) Every weekend in the summer, families enjoy flying kites at public parks. They are considered to be a national treasure in Chile and are considered to be a great way to spend time with the family and help pass the time.(Sports and Recreation) Another popular hobby in Chile is a game called Rayuela.(How to play) It is a lot similar to the American game discus, but instead of trying to get distance, you try to get accuracy.(Sports and Recreation) A string is stretched across a field and you throw a heavy disk called a tejo, and the closest to the string wins. Chileans are a type of culture that enjoy socializing and group activities.(Sports and Recreation) Many Chileans are involved in a team, club, or organization, just as it is in America. Many of the sports that are played there are the same as the United States. These sports include tennis, fishing, golf, volleyball, polo, rugby, basketball, skiing, water-skiing, fishing, scuba diving, horseback riding, and jogging and chueca.(Sports and Recreation)

Famous Artists
a painting from by Miguel Venegas
a painting from by Miguel Venegas
Miguel Venegas- Born in 1680, he was one of the most famous painters in Chile. His nickname was “El Maestro,” meaning the master, because he was known for his unique and detailed art. He was also a historian and a writer and his paintings became very famous after he died in 1764.(Famous Artists)
Carlos Catasse- Born in 1944, he was a Master Chilean painter of known internationally. He earned the “Painting National Prize” in 1987 in Ecuador and later came to Chile to continue his art career. He is currently in six museums across the world including Spain, Cuba, and USA. He also has a high amount of Exhibits across the world. He has six prizes including the “Camilo Egas” and three 1st prizes in three different galleries.(Famous Artists)
Claudio Bravo- He was born in Valparaiso, Chile. He is a master in all techniques and skills in art. He is known for his portraits and his ability to create verisimilitude. In his paintings, he creates emotion and warmth, especially his oil paintings, and he continues create figurative paintings, portraits, and drawings.(Claudio Bravo)



Music
external image kids-cueca.jpgThe most popular music in Chile is folk music.(Chile) It has been the international music since at least the 1960s. The most famous folk group was Violeta Parra, who started the whole folk uproar. Currently in Cuba, the most famous groups include Inti Illimani, Illapu, and Congreso.(Chile) Dancing in Chile is very popular because of all the music that goes on. The national dance in Chile is the cueca which originated from early folklore. The cueca is a movement in which a man and a woman act like they are riding a horse waving their lasso in the air.(Chile)





Bibliography