Argentina By:
Kara Atkinson, Lynn Woempner, Dani McBride, and Briana Gonzales

Argentina Flag

General Information




Work Cited

General Information:

Argentina has everyone’s desire of climates and regions whether it is mountains, beaches, plains and more. This country in South America stretches about 2,300 miles (Gofen). This long country is very diverse with subtropical to subarctic hottest in the north and coldest in the south. Argentina is the eighth largest country in the world and second largest in South America, after Brazil (Gofen). Argentina is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east and the Andes mountains on the west forming natural borders that stretch across the land. The country of Argentina is proud of there natural beauty with miles of seashore and snow capped mountains. Northern Argentina consists of heavily forested lowlands. An area in the lowlands is the forests of Chaco. This area is rich with forest products and swamps. The winters are dry and the summers are hot and humid. Another area is Mesopotamia, and includes provinces of Entre Rios, Corrientes, and Misiones (Gofen). The regions of Mesopotamia and Entre Rios means "between rivers". The regions are grassy plains, rivers, and swamps. Making the climate warm and wet all year around. Misiones in northern Mesopotamia has many waterfalls such as the Iguazu Falls a great tourist destination. More than two-thirds of Argentines population lives in the pampas. Located here is the capital of Buenos Aires and many economic activates. The pampas are fertile and flat lands with a temperature climate. The western part of Argentina bordering Chile is the Andes mountain range. Only about 15 percent of the population currently lives in this area. The last region in the southern area is Patagonia. Patagonia covers more than a quarter of Argentina; the region is dry with plateaus, deep canyons, and deserts.
Argentina is very interesting and diverse this country still amazes tourists and natives with its natural beauty.

Argentina Map

Argentina’s religion is not as diverse as its geography. In Argentina there are more than 90 percent of people who are Roman Catholic. Even though they are the religion of Roman Catholic fewer than 20 percent of urban Catholics practice the religion. The Argentina people are religious by nature but do not go to mass regularly. Also in Argentina such local customs believe in spiritualism (a belief in the ability of the living to communicate with the dead) this is intertwined in Catholic beliefs (Jokisch). Although the majority of the population is Roman Catholic there is a small portion of Protestant Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Also some cults still exist these are mainly about history, folklore, and saint veneration (Eller).

Roman Catholic cross

The total population in Argentina is an estimate of 40,301,927. In Argentina there are parts that are heavily populated and a few people. Such as in Buenos Aries about one-third of its population lives in its suburbs (Argentinas Population). The larger regions in Argentina such as the Andes Mountains, and plateau’s are lightly populated. In these areas the official language is Spanish, and many understand Italian even if not fluent. In Argentina’s population about three percent is native Indian or meztizo, and the rest of the population is white.

Population Graph

System of Government--
’s system of government is very similar to America’s government. This is similar because like America we have a constitution and we vote for a president and a vice president. These government officials have also a four year term and cannot serve for more than two terms. The president of Argentina is Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner and the vice president is Julio Cobos. Argentina structure is a federal and republic government. For the local government Argentina has twenty three provinces which have an elected governor and a legislature which has its own constitution (Jokisch). Argentina


Economy Status/ Imports & Exports--
Argentina’s economic activity is brought together in Buenos Aires, Cordoba, and Santa Fe provinces and in the city of Buenos Aires (Jokisch). The economy was mainly based off of agriculture exports. Today service industries and manufacturing is 90 percent of Argentina’s gross domestic product per year. Argentina’s main trading partners are Brazil, Chile, China, Germany, Mexico, Spain, and the United States (Jokisch). Important exports include cereals and other agricultural products, cooking oil, petroleum and natural gas, and processed foods. Argentina’s main imports are chemicals, machinery and mechanical equipment, metal products, plastics, and transportation equipment. Argentina’s money system is the Argentine peso (ARS). The money system are in both coins and bill similar to America.

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Ancient Peoples -

Ancient peoples that inhabited Argentina before Spanish colonization were mostly indigenous groups, some of whom belonged to the Incan Empire, but most ancient people were just nomadic or autonomous (argentina).

Ancient Incan Mask
Ancient Incan Mask

Spanish Conquering -

Amerigo Vespucci was the first European to arrive in the area in 1502. Following him, a Spanish navigator named Juan de Solias visited the region in 1516. In 1580 Spain established a colony in the site of Buenos Aires. Further into Argentina, Spain also established the Vice Royalty of Rio de la Plata in 1776 when Buenos Aires became a flourishing port (country).
Amerigo Vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci

Fight for Independence -

Buenos Aires officially declared independence from Spain on July 9th, 1816. General Jose de San Martin is revered as the hero of their national independence. After gaining independence centralist and federalists conflicted about the future of their nation. Finally, unity was established and the constitution promulgated in 1853 (country).
General Jose de San Martin
General Jose de San Martin

Important/Significant Events -

- 1916 gov. changed from conservative to radical (County)
- 1943 military ousted Argentina’s constitutional government (Country)
- 1946 Juan Domingo Peron elected president (Country)
- 1947, Peron announced the first 5-year plan of growth of industries he nationalized (Country)
- March 11, 1973, Argentina held general elections for the first time in 10 years (Country)
- 1973 Dr. Hector Campora (Peron’s stand in) won presidential election (Country)
- October 1973 Peron returned as president after Campora resigned (Country)
- 1982 defeaedt by the United Kingdom when attempting to seize the
Falklands/Malvinas Islands (Country)
- October 30, 1983 Raul Alfonsin elected president (Country)
- 1989 Carlos Saul Menem elected president (Country)
- 1999 elected President Fernando De la Rua (Country)
- December 23, 2001, elected Adolfo Rodriguez Saa to serve as President (Country)
- January 1, 2002 Peronist Eduardo Duhalde elected as president (Country)
- May 25, 2003 President Kirchner took office (Country)

Juan Domingo Peron
Juan Domingo Peron

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The European influence can be found amongst Argentine art, lifestyle and architecture but literature has more of a broad cultural mix that has given birth to authors like, Jorge Luis Borges, Julio Cortázar, Ernesto Sábato, Manuel Puig and Osvaldo Soriano. Argentina also has many museums, art galleries, and theatres as well as cinema that has been acknowledged internationally. (Argentina: Culture, Mi Buenos Aires Querido).
Fine Arts
Pre-Hispanic Period:

Outstanding cultures were the cultures of the Northwest where art reached the highest degree of development prior to the Spaniards arrival. Argentineans got into agriculture and pottery where they based their economy on agriculture knowing what it took for the workings of metals, ceramics and textiles. A lot of pottery was decorated with geometrical figures, real or imaginable images or effigy-vessels showing humans or animals, urns of polychrome or even big metals discs decorated with schematic figures. Native cultures also left “artifacts” in caves and mountain shelters. (Pre-Hispanic Period, SurdelSur)
anthropomorphic vessel. Condorhuasi pottery.
Colonial Period:
This period is "The predominance of religion... and the functionality attributed to art as a tool for persuading and conveying ideas,” said by Héctor Schenone. Artists and craftsmen in Argentina built things and create things for the community which revolved around the church. Altarpieces were the link between men and “the sacred space” where within the church altarpieces were repeated and through them many artists achieved expressions. Many artists from Spain and Italy came and made religious sculptures and paintings,artin2_1.jpg also there were paintings of important figures or people in the church. The architects of the Society of Jesus built temples and dwelling places not only for their order but for civilians and others as well. Jesuit painters added sculptures and painting to the temples and also devoted their time to the training of Indians, blacks, and mestizoes in their ateliers. Florian Pauke’s watercolors illustrated memoirs of the colonial Argentina.
(Colonial Period, SurdelSur)
19th Century to the 1920’s:
Religious subjects from the colonial weren’t as common, but the activity mainly revolved around portraits and scenes of customs of Argentina. Emeric Essex Vidal (1791-1861) made watercolors that illustrated Argentine past. Carlos Enrique Pellegrini (1800-1875) painted portraits of scenes of customs and views of the city. Adolfo D'Hastrel (1805-1875) brought together drawings and watercolors as well as texts from the book, Colección de vistas y costumbres del Río de la Plata”. Raimundo Monvoisin (1790-1870) painted the Gaucho Federal and La porteña del templo and Mauricio Rugendas (1802-1858) painted the Desembarco de pasajeros en Buenos Aires and the Portrait of Mariquita Sánchez de Mendivillie. (19th Century to the 1920’s, SurdelSur)

Interior of the Buenos Aires Cathedral, 1830 Carlos Enrique Pellegrini.

The Tango is one of the most intricate dances in Argentina, which is danced to an emotional song originating from Buenos Aires. Though it came from the slums in the 1880’s it is now one of the most elegant dances performed. The tango was a way for the people in poverty to act out their conflicts in the slums in the 1880’s. Many peasants and immigrants and disadvantaged porteños made a new social class so that they could identify themselves to feel as if they belonged; making up cultural expressions which started the tango.

Modern Tango. Expressing strong emotions through dance

Dances such as the Zamba and the Escondido or the dance of the guachos are also famous which are performed to music in the sound of horses galloping in the distance. Argentinean painting and sculpture derived from the European style in the 19th century. But the art that stood out the most among the Argentineans didn’t come ‘til the 20th century. “The New Image Painters,” displayed paintings of familiar objects from daily life in unfamiliar and unusual ways, the person viewing the painting would have to create their own story. (Argentina Art, ArgenTour).

Argentina is most popularly known for the tango, but there are also influences of Rock, Folk, Electronic, Pop, Cumbia, Cuarteto and Jazz. There has been a defiant rock scene in Argentina due to Argentine rock as well. Folk music or música folklórica comes in many different forms in different parts of Argentina with many different influences. The top three most influential folk groups were from; Los Chalchaleros
and Los Fronterizos from the Province of Salta as well as the Ábalos brothers from Santiago del Estero Province. Folk music became very important during the protest movement in the 1970’s against the military dictatorship and the community division. In the early 21st century, Juana Molina proposed the joining of electronic music, folklore and ambient sounds for gentle/soft voices and short zambas. There is also Andean music which comes from the Andes on the border of Bolivia and Chile with the sounds of the wind, percussion and string instruments. As well as Chacarera which is what serves the imaginary and rural counterpart of the tango originated from farms and made it’s way gradually into the bigger cities. The Chamame is accordion based but with the Spanish guitar and the violin mixed in which makes something close to a polka. (Music of Argentina, Wikipedia)
Othere popular forms of music are Tango, Rock, Electronic, Pop, Cumbia and Cuarteto. Tango is the music which the dance of Tango came from. Tango came from the brothels, bars and ports of Buenos Aires where Europeans came and mixed different kinds of music together. Traders and immigrants brought rythms from Europe to Argentina which became the milonga sometime in the 1900’s. In Buenos Aires the milonga became the modern tango through all of its popularity. From 1930 tango changed from a strictly dance focused music to music of lyrics and poetry.
Singers such as, Carlos Gardel, Roberto Goveneche, Hugo del Carril, Tita Merello, Susana Rinaldi and Edmundo Rivera all contributed to the changes of tango. From the 1930’s through the 1950’s tango resembled or mirrored the era of swing and jazz in the United States. After 1955 as Argentine rock and nueva canción came into the picture, tango became more listener oriented than the music of dance. (Music of Argentina, Wikipedia)
Carlos Gardel
Roberto Goyeneche
Hugo del Carril
Tita Morello
Edmundo Rivera

Argentine rock came in 1965 when Los Shakers came to Argentina when a pop genre called ritmo latino was popular. Hangouts in Buenos Aires and Rosario held the rock genre relying on British rock influences, though musicians started to research local music roots of Argentina creating a local sound for rock in the mid- 1960’s. Los Shakers had a big influence on the rock scene bringing a harder edge of rock, where musicians such as
Los Gatos started to record their own kind of rock. A distinct sound of rock came into play with Los Gatos’ La Balsa. In the 1970’s Argentine rock became very popular amongst the teens in Argentina, and in the 80’s Argentine rock bands became big not only in Latin America itself but in other countries as well. The most popular and most listened to bands are, Los Piojos, Babasónicos, La Renga, Las Pelotas, Divididos, Attaque 77, Intoxicados, and Bersuit. Argentine rock is the most listened to music in Argentina by the youth with an influence and success that has gone international. (Music of Argentina, Wikipedia)
Electronic is a big favorite of the young men in Argentina, like the dance parties and creamfields. More than 75,000 people attended an electronic music festival in 2005 where more than 100 artists and DJ’s performed, which shows that electronic music is a favorite for many in Argentina. As well as indietronica bands are pretty popular, the young men of middle and upper classes listen to this genre. Pop music has also been a success in Argentina with bands like, Bandana and Miranda!. As well as Airbag, Juana la loca and Arbol which have combined hardcore with pop and violin, that make up the current music scene.
(Music of Argentina, Wikipedia)
Argentina cumbia is a very important part of recent music which originally came from the cumbia in Colombia, but the lower classes of balilantes took on this music. It became widespread in the 1990’s and in 2000 it cumbia became more explicit and aggressive. A lot of it started in the 1980’s when migrants from South America brought tropical music with a more pinnacle point to Argentina, which then became a mixture of cumbia, folk rhythms, and a carribean style. Caurteto is a form of dance music in comparison with Merengue, and became popular in the 1940’s beginning with Cuarteto Leo but renovated around the 1980’s.
(Music of Argentina, Wikipedia).

Cinema came to Argentina shortly after being introduced in Paris and soon national productions were being shot. Industry REALLY started in 1933 with sound film. Argentine movies were watched all over Latin America until the 1950’s, after then there was the closing of studios, the growth of television ratings and many other conflicts appointed other rules. Argentina cinema has been reduced in quantity but hold a certain quality that worldwide is recognized. On July 18th of 1896 the first film exhibition of the Lumiere’s came to Argentina while in 1894 the kinetoscope was already present. The import of French cameras came in 1897 and during that time Frenchman Eugene Py had become the first film maker and cameraman, creating La Bandera Argentina. Surgical films were introduced by Dr. Alejandro Posadas in 1898 where he would shoot his own surgeries. The first theatres specifically for movie projections and news reports came to be in 1900. In 1914 Nobleza Gaucha was the first huge success in Argentina Cinema. In the silent film period more than 200 films were shot, including; melodramas, thrillers, and movies with countryside subjects. The biggest successes were movies with tango climates by Agustín Ferreyra during the silent film period. But the real industrial cinema rose in 1933 with sound films where Argentina Sono Films was born, with Tango. (Argentine: Cinema, SurdelSur)

Sports in Argentina have been said historically that it has been an integral part of the social and cultural life. Almost everyone in Argentina are involved in some kind of sport for example in the summer, many families enjoy going to the beach and playing different water sports. While in the winter months Argentineans are also very active but go hiking, mountain climbing or skiing in the Andes Mountains, where the events of hiking and mountain climbing are called Andinismo. Other sports in Argentina include; hiking, trekking, auto racing, polo, mountaineering, rafting, kayaking, golfing, diving, observing nature, sailng, skiing, fishing and hunting. (Sports in Argentina, Maps of World)

Argentina Soccer Team

The national game of Argentina is fútbol (soccer), which was introduced in the streets of Buenos Aires by British soldiers in the 1860’s. Argentina’s national team has become one of the many best teams in the world winning the world cup titles in 1978 and 1986. Another important sport in Argentina is polo which is played by teams of four all on horseback. The ponies/horses of Argentina used for polo as well as the polo players themselves are sought by countries all around the world. Gonzalo Pieres is one of the best players of polo in the world. Pato, first played by the guachos is a very important sport in Argentina. This sport Pato means “duck,” which in the beginning was played by two teams on horseback putting a duck in a leather pouch and pulling until one of the opponents let go. Though in 1882 the sport was banned for the dangers involved such as, when one team won they would ride away with the Pato but the losing team would chase after and try and retrieve the duck. But Pato was soon brought back with new rules in the late 1930’s, where two teams of four men on horseback throw around a leather ball with six handles and try and make it into one of two baskets on either side of a big field. Basketball, volleyball, rugby, field hockey, and horse racing are all very popular and important sports as well in Argentina. Tennis is also an important sport, though in the beginning it was only meant for the wealthy ‘til the Argentinean Guillermo Vilas performed well in a competition and now it is played throughout Argentina for every class, not just the wealthy. (Sports in Argentina, ArgenTour)

Famous Argentineans
Famous Artists:
Benito Panunzi: 1810-1890 born in Italy, Argentine photographer. One of the first photographers to see the beauty of the Argentine Pampa and one of the first to make portraits of the Guachos. (Benito Panunzi, ArtCyclpedia)
Guillermo Kuitca: Born in 1961 in Buenos Aires. A visual artist known for map and architectural work. (Guillermo Kuitca, SperoneWestWater)
Famous Writers:
Jorge Luís Borges: August 24, 1899 – June 14, 1986. Borges was best known for his short stories but was also known as a poet and an essayist as well. Born in Buenos Aires. (Famous Poets and Poems)
Carlos Barbarito: Born in Buenos Aires on February 6th 1955. Poet who has won many prizes for his work; Prize Francisco Lуpez Merino. Prize Foundation Alejandro Gonzalez Gattone. Prize Concurso Rйgimen de Fomento a la Producciуn Literaria Nacional y Estнmulo a la Industrial Editorial, Fondo Nacional de las Artes. (Famous Poets and Poems)

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Argentina Food and Cuisine

If you ever visit Argentina, the one thing that will stand out the most is their passion for food and traditional cuisine. Argentineans take great pride in the many delectable dishes that have been passed down from generation to generation. The food has a strong resemblance to Spanish, Italian, French and other European dishes rather then Latin American cuisines (Insight Guides: South America). With traditional dishes, customs and restruants around the country, it makes it a paradise for tourist who love their food.

Popular food and drinks
Popular foods and drinks in Argentina are their famous asado , dulce de leche , empanadas, and yerba mate. Asado is very well known and

can be seen and tasted throughout Argentina. It is suggested that if you’re a vegetarian, Argentina may not be the best place to visit because many restaurants serve this dish. They love their meat! Even in a annual consumption report, in 2007, the consumption per capita was an average 149 lbs of meat and protein (National Consumption Report Site). Asado is usually eaten during lunch and dinner time. Another meat specialty is blood sausage and pig intestine. This usually is served with sweetbread. Empanadas are another tradition which are like “on the go” pot pies. It is dough shaped like a pocket stuffed with sweet corn, cheese, and some type of meat. Then they are either deep fried or baked and served to the customers hot and fresh in a bakery. Or it is served at family gatherings or parties as starters and are also popular at picnics. Dulce de leche is another obsession of the Argentineans ( Wikipedia Argentina Cuisine). It can be found on many different food choices to add flavor. Popular drinks in Argentina are yerba mate , many beers and wines, and liqueurs. Yerba mate is

extremely popular in all South America and people brew it themselves and share it with many of their friends and family. Other drinks is the widely consumed Quilmes beer and the many wines like Petit Verdot from their vineyards. Also a very popular liqueur is cana de

duranzo (peach brandy) and esperidina, which is made from orange peels.

Daily Customs
Food customs in Argentina are very different then from here in the United States. In a typical day, breakfast is usually around 8:00 to 10:00 in the morning, and then for many people that work or go to school are let for their Siesta Time around 1:00 or 2:00 in the afternoon and

have lunch with their families. Lunch is the biggest meal of the day because it’s the time to be with family, rest and have good, old home-style cooking. Dinner is usually around 8:00 at night because of the fullness from lunch and the atmosphere of Argentina night life. Dinner is smaller then lunch other then in the states where its the largest meal of the day and the time to be with family. Typical meals consist of immediate family and even extended family sometimes for lunch gatherings, with a home cooked meal. Breakfast is like either a croissant or dulce de leche crepes, then lunch is like a five course meal all at one time, and then dinner is smaller portioned. Manners that are considered rude and improper are clearing the throat at the table, elbows on the table but putting your hands in your lap, and blowing your nose. Bad manners with eating in public is eating food on a bus or any type of public transportation.


Many of the popular, some of them high end restaurants located in and around the Buenos Aires area, the capital of Argentina. According to travelers that returned from Argentina would recommend going to Tomo I, Harper’s, La Cabana, and Los Inmortales. Tomo I is a five star restaurant and night club during Buenos Aires’s night life. The menu mostly consists of French cuisine that are served in pretty large portions. They also serve lunch on week days and Saturdays as well. Harper’s serves international cuisines, its more formal dining that is four star quality but is a little pricey. Most of their dishes start at high $$.$$, but travel sources say its worth it. La Cabana is a taste of real, authentic Argentinean food. It’s a mixed grill cantina and is said to be the best place to eat famous asado. It has a nice, comfortable atmosphere and is reasonably priced. For Italian cuisine, its suggested to go to Los Inmortales. Its unique, formal dining is three star quality and has many Italian dishes to choose from. As a warning however to anyone who is a vegetarian, most of the restaurants in Argentina serve mostly beef because of their proud culture and heritage so it might be hard to find a restaurant that either is strictly vegetarian or serves more vegetarian dishes.

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Works Cited

"Argentina". Argentina: Background. 2009. Culture Grams. 8 April 2009. <>

"Country Report Argentina". History of Argentina. 2009. Counrty Reports. 10 April 2009. <>

"Explorers of the Millenium". Amerigo Vespucci. Think Quest. 12 April 2009. <>

"Latin America Cultures". Incan Empire. 10 April 2009. <>

"Legacy of Juan Peron". Juan Peron. 9 April 2009. <>

"Virtual American Biographies". Jose de San Martin. 2000. Famous Americans. 18 April 2009. <>

General Information:
Gofen, Ethel. Argentina (Cultures of the World). New York: Benchmark Books, 2002. Print.

Jokisch, Brad D., and Ana Margheritis. "Argentina." World Book Advanced. 2009. [Place of access.] 3 May 2009 <>.

Eller, Willette. "The Church in Argentina." Religion in Argentina. Healism. 3 May 2009 <>.

"Argentina Population." nation by nation . 3 May 2009 <>.

Knapp, Gregory. "Andes Mountains." World Book Advanced. 2009. [Place of access.] 4 May 2009 <>.

Knapp, Gregory. "Iguacu Falls." World Book Advanced. 2009. [Place of access.] 4 May 2009 <>.

Food: last updated January 5, 2008 last updated Febuary 18, 2009 last updated June 26, 2007

Insight Guide: South America by Houghton Mifflin Published by Houghton Mifflin Co.
222 Berkley St. Boston, Mass.


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